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Essay范文:Planning And Urban Transport Dilemmas Analysis And 2018-04-16
下面是Fanessay提供的一篇essay范文--Planning And Urban Transport Dilemmas Analysis And,这篇范文主要讨论的是针对城市交通问题和解决方案的研究规划和分析。现在,城市人口众多,并且将来会越来越多,几乎每家每户都有一辆汽车,所以,交通拥堵成了大城市的一个主要问题,并且在郊区低载客量也让很多的服务财政很难继续。交通问题已经严重影响了人民的生活,占用了他们的活动空间,所以,我们呼吁出台治理交通拥挤问题的方案和发展方案,还居民一个宽敞干净的生活环境。


Urbanization has been one of the most dominant contemporary processes as a more people live in cities now, more than ever before in history. Urban transportation issues are of foremost importance to support its uses in the form of moving both passengers and freight. Urban transport is highly complex because of the modes that are involved, the abundance of both origins and destinations, and urban traffic. For many years, the primary focus of urban transport has been on passengers as cities were viewed as locations of utmost human interactions with intricate traffic patterns linked to commuting, commercial transactions along with both leisure and culturally-based activities. Today cities are also recognized as locations of production, consumption and distribution, which translate to freight movement. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, most notably in particularly high density areas of cities.
  
 Cities are locations having a high level of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that get its support from public transport systems. Problems arise when available transit systems cannot satisfy the requirements of urban mobility. Some problems have been prevalent from the beginning of civilization, like congestion. Other problems are relatively new like urban freight distribution or environmental impacts. 

Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban areas. It is particularly linked with motorization and the diffusion of the automobile, which has increased the demand for transport infrastructures, which has often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility. Since vehicles spend the majority of the time parked, motorization has expanded the demand for parking space, which has created space consumption problems particularly in central areas. Also, many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over or under used. During the so-called 'peak hours' of use, overcrowdedness creates discomfort for individuals as the system copes with a temporary surge in demand. Low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas. In spite of significant subsidies and cross-financing, like as in tolls, almost every public transit systems cannot generate the sufficient income to cover both its operating and capital costs.
  
 There are also notable difficulties for pedestrians that result from intense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians and vehicles is impaired, and also because of a blatant lack of consideration for pedestrians in the physical design of facilities.
  
 Also, there is an issue in regard to the loss of public space. The majority of roads are publicly owned and free of access. Increased traffic has adverse impacts on public activities which once crowded the streets. These include, but are not limited to agoras, markets, parades and processions, including protests and marches, games, and various other examples of community interaction. These have gradually disappeared to be replaced by automobiles in countries like the United States. In many cases, these activities have shifted their focuses to shopping malls while in other cases, they have been completely abandoned altogether. Traffic flows influence the life and interactions of residents and their usage of street space. More traffic impedes social interactions and street activities. People tend to walk and cycle less when the automobile traffic is particularly high.
  
 In addition to problems that directly affect human beings, urban transport with it's often over use and/or misuse plays an adverse affect on the planet. The pollution that is created by circulation also adversely affects the health of the urban population. Also, energy consumption by urban transportation has dramatically increased, strengthening the dependency on petroleum.
  
 Another common problem in urban transport planning is the prevalence of traffic accidents. Growing traffic in urban areas is linked directly with a growing number of traffic accidents, and the injuries and deaths that accompany it. Accidents also cause delays, feeding the other urban transport problems. As the automobile traffic in urban areas increase, the urban population looses a sense of safety.
  
 One of the other most common problems is the excessive use of land. The territorial imprint of transportation is significant, particularly for the automobile. Between 30 percent and 60 percent of a metropolitan area may be devoted to transportation, an outcome of the over-reliance on some forms of transportation.
  
 Finally, globalization and the materialization of the economy have resulted in the growing quantities of freight moving within urban cities. As freight traffic commonly shares infrastructures with the circulation of passengers, the mobility of freight in urban areas has become increasingly problematic.
  
 The main issue that branches off into all the others is the over-dependency of the automobile. For consumers and producers, the automobile has advantages such as on demand mobility, comfort, status, speed, and perhaps most importantly, convenience. When given the choice and the opportunity, most individuals will prefer using a personal automobile over other forms of transportation. Several factors influence the growth of the total vehicle fleet, such as sustained economic growth, meaning the increase in incomes and quality of life, complex individual urban movement patterns, meaning many households have more than one automobile, along with more leisure time and suburbanization. Therefore, rising automobile mobility can be perceived as a positive consequence of economic development to some, and thus go along with the trend. It's important, and cannot be emphasized enough that the acute growth in the total number of vehicles gives rise to congestion at peak traffic hours on major thoroughfares, in business districts and often throughout the metropolitan urban area. 

The second half of the 20th century saw the adaptation of many cities in North America and Europe, along with the rest of the 'West' to automobile circulation. Motorized transportation was seen as a powerful symbol of modernity and development for many. At this time, highways were constructed, the streets were enlarged, and parking lots were set often disrupting the existing urban fabric with the creation of motorized urban cities.
  
 Some see the ultimate solution to combat the automobile-only mindset is to increase the availability of safe, efficient public transport. Governments, at times, make the choice to subsidize public transport for several reasons, both social and environmental, or also for economical reasons. The key motivation factors are the need to provide transport to people who either cannot afford or are physically or legally incapable of using an automobile. Other motives may be related to promote business and economic growth, or urban renewal in formerly deprived areas of the city, along with a will to reduce congestion, land use and emissions of air pollution and greenhouse gases. Some systems are owned and operated by a government agency, while others are commercial, but still often receive greater benefits from the government compared to a normal company.
  
 Subsidies to transportation systems may, at times, take the form of direct payments to financially unprofitable services. However, indirect subsidies are used also. This may include allowing use of state-owned infrastructure without payment or for less than cost-price, to stimulate public transport's economic competitiveness over private transport, that normally also has free infrastructure, sometimes subsidized through such things as taxes on gas. Other known subsidies that are utilized include tax advantages, bailouts if companies that are likely to collapse and the reduction of competition through licensing schemes, which is often applied to taxis and airlines.
  
 Some government officials believe that use of taxpayer funds towards mass transit will ultimately save taxpayer money in other ways, and therefore, state-funded mass transit is seen as a benefit to the taxpayer. To them, the lack of mass transit results in more traffic, pollution, and road construction to accommodate more vehicles. They assert that these are very costly, and that providing mass transit will therefore alleviate these expenses.
  
 Expansion of public transportation systems is often opposed by critics who see such expansions as vehicles for violent criminals and homeless persons to expand into new areas to which they would otherwise have to walk. Despite the occasional highly publicized incident, the vast majorities of modern public transport systems are well designed and patrolled and generally have low crime rates. Many systems are monitored by CCTV, mirrors, or by patrol. Nevertheless, some systems do attract 'vagrants' who use the stations or trains as sleeping shelters, though most operators have practices in place that is meant discourage and ultimately prevent this.
  
 Though public transit accidents attract far more publicity than car wrecks, public transport is much safer, due to far lower accident rates. Annually, public transit, as opposed to personal automobile use, prevents 200,000 deaths, injuries, and accidents compared to when similar equivalent trips had been made by personal car. Riding the bus is over 170 times safer than making trips in a private automobile, according to the National Safety Council.
  
 One approach that some have taken is to make public transportation more pleasant to urban residents by imposing rules and regulations for increased comfort and safety. Longer distance public transport, at times, sell food and drink on board, or have a dedicated buffet car and/or dining car. However, some urban transport systems forbid the consumption of food, drink, or even, at times, chewing gum, while utilizing public transport. At times, only specific types of food are forbidden with more risk of making the vehicles dirty. This would include but not be limited to ice creams and fries, and sometimes snack chips. Some systems prohibit carrying open food or beverage containers, even if the food or beverage is not being consumed during the ride. In most Western developed nations, smoking is prohibited in all or some parts of most public transportation systems due to the obvious safety and health issues. Generally smoking is not allowed on buses and trains, while rules concerning stations and waiting platforms differ from various systems compared to other systems. The situation in other countries varies widely. 

Many mass transit systems prohibit the use of certain audio devices, such as personal hand-held radios, portable CD players, and MP3 players, unless, of course, used with an earphone through which only the user can hear the device. This is an effort to reduce the amount of internal noise. For the same reason among others, some mass transit systems have restricted the use of mobile phones. The well-known Amtrak system has so-called 'quiet cars' where cellular phone usage is strictly prohibited.
  
 Items are at times banned for the greater good of everyone using public transit. Certain items considered to be problematic are prohibited or regulated on many mass transit systems. These include most firearms and most other weapons, unless there is an explicit license to carry involved. In addition, explosives, flammables, along with other hazardous chemicals and substances are prohibited. In Sydney, Australia, it is illegal to carry any kinds of spray cans or permanent markers on public transport. This is because they can be, and are often used to vandalize the vehicles and stations. This rule also applies to sharp instruments that could inflict damage, such as screwdrivers. This is an effort to reduce and eliminate what is becoming popularly known as 'scratchitti', a form of vandalism where messages are carved into a window.
  
 Some systems prohibit items of a large size that may take up a lot of space, such as bicycles and other large items. However, more systems in recent years have been permitting passengers to bring bikes. Likewise, many systems prohibit live animals, both large and small, but allow, at times, those that are kept in carrying cases or other closed containers. Additionally, service animals for the blind or disabled are permitted in most cases.
  
 Today, most inter-city trains and coaches offer reclining seats. In addition, many provide pillows and blankets for overnight travelers. Better sleeping arrangements are commonly offered for a premium fare and include sleeping cars on overnight trains, larger private cabins on ships along with bus and airplane seats that convert into beds. Frugal tourists sometimes plan their trips using overnight train or bus trips in lieu of paying for a hotel. The ability to get additional sleep on the way to work is attractive to many business commuters using public transport. Because night trains or coaches can be cheaper than motels, homeless persons often use these as overnight shelters. Most transportation agencies actively discourage this. For this and other reasons passengers are often required to exit the vehicle at the end of the line. After this, they can board again in the same or another vehicle, after some waiting. Also, even a low fare often deters the poorest individuals, including homeless people, which many wealthier commuters for reasons of their own are uncomfortable around.
  
 Some systems prohibit passengers from engaging in conversation with the operator. Others require that passengers who engage in any conversation must keep the noise level low enough that it not be audible to other passengers.
  
 Some systems have regulations against photography or videography of the system's vehicles, stations, or any other property. Those seen holding a mobile phone in a manner that appears to be used for photographical purposes are considered to be suspicious for breaking this rule. Many systems have regulations against behavior deemed to be unruly or otherwise disturbing to other passengers. In these cases, it is usually at the discretion of the operator, transit worker, or police officers to determine what behaviors fit the description. Some systems have regulations on the use of profanity. 

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