Essay范文:CSR activities 2018-04-17
European Union (EU) nations consider CSR activities as extremely important in their pursuit to improve their social and environmental status, and wh have engaged themselves in maile BP and other large multinationals have engaged their efforts in humanitarian type of activities in particular the donation of large amounts to charity organizations as well as local communities to improve their level of education and existence. Governments, corporations and NGO's are still arguing over whether some form of regulation is needed to ensure that large multinational companies such as BP where their large impact on the environment BP is in line with social and environmental expectation. It is still a debatable issue that if companies such as BP do not voluntarily make progresses with the implementation of their respective CSR programmes it may actually give a free hand to governments to step in and introduce further environmental and social legislation (Nae and Grigore, 2009).
Nae and Grigore (2009) argue in their definition of CSR, that it should involve high level representation on a state to state level and they place a strong emphasis on the voluntary nature of CSR from large industry players such as BP.
However, others such large charity organizations argue that business would not take their environmental responsibility seriously if CSR will be an ‘only' voluntary activity which companies may or may not choose to implement and there should be some government involvement in order to set the standards. They argue that governments need to set standards such as universal legislative frameworks which could be followed and improved by the private sector. Such an encouragement method is to promote and support corporations via tax offsets when they meet their voluntary CSR goals, such as reductions in energy consumption, pollution and environmental damage as part of their CSR environmental strategy.
In our current ever changing competitive environment multinational companies such as BP should be encouraged to further extend their current CSR efforts to add additional strength to their existing competitive advantages within industries and to promote themselves as leading players in their own industries via the implementation advanced CSR policies. In BP's case that is reflected by its development of “social index” used to keep an eye on the company's performance on social issues. BP's ‘social index' is a good measuring tool at benchmarking itself against its own efforts and progress but as well as measuring itself in line with its direct competitors within the same industry.
In contrast, the case of Toyota Corporation, Noorbaksh S. (2008) argues that during the last decade, CSR has develop into somewhat of a Public Relations (PR) exercisefor many large companies in Japan, and as a direct result of this, customers and the government are becoming more and more conscious of where they purchase their products from and where they invest their monies.
Japan has long tradition of CSR implementation when compared to other countries, issues such as the environment, community welfare through the promotion of best standard practices were well discussed since the 70's, however the term “CSR” has more openly been used by large corporations such as Toyota since the early 90's to describe their efforts in addressing and redressing the damage they create through their day to day activities.
On its company's website, Toyota has sections covering their CSR commitments, which includes the achievement of their International Standards for Business, Government and Society (ISO) standards, protection of human rights and involvement in community activities, they also have a strong commitment towards its employees' “work-life balance,” which became a key phrase commonly used in the Japanese media and is directly related to PR activities and promotion of a socially responsible business. They believe that by assisting their employees to a achieve a well-balanced professional and private life will result in employees that will assist Toyota in terms of adding value to their professional service to the company (Noorbakhsh, 2008).
Toyota's environmental policies related to their global environmental conservation activities are form part of their 'Earth Charter' and were introduced in 1992 (CSR Main Concepts, 2009).Their primary environment concerns range from the effects their direct by-product (cars) emissions and their impact on the environment, to the ecological impact of its industrialized processes. Toyota's current environmental commitment is focused on developing new technologies with cleaner emissions and the creation of more efficient process, which will eventually provide the company with the necessary competitive advantages needed in the market to stay at the top of its game. Their ultimate goal is to stay a socially respected business in the eyes of the their customers and the international business community, Toyota also believes that each community has different needs therefore each of their international manufacturing units are capable of implementing its own CSR policies in order to best serve the local communities and environment, that is a very unique approach to CSR. Their most noted efforts to date are directed at educating and supporting local communities and preserving of the environment.
Noorbakhsh (2008) further argues that Toyota prides itself for being an economically and environmentally conscious company by maintaining its continuous commitment towards sustainability practices. However, some of its efforts were interpreted as misleading the public (Noorbakhsh, S. 2008).
Eiji Kosaka a Japanese politician has publicly claimed on his internet blog that Toyota misleads customers by the promotion of such environmental campaigns. He challenged Toyota's quote “We made this commercial with the goal of informing long-time owners of the same vehicle that changing to a newer vehicle will use less gasoline, therefore reducing CO2 emissions”. (Noorbakhsh, S. 2008). The company has since changed its website to include information that “about 80% of the CO2s released by a vehicle come from the actual way of operation” therefore gasoline consumption will not be a as major factor in CO2 emissions as it would be the vehicle way of maintenance and long term operation, and while only about a 20% is produced during the actual driving process.
In 2007 Toyota has launched a new improved SUV vehicle called “the Highlander” which is a new improved version of its predecessor, the vehicle manufacturing processes reflects Toyota's commitment to innovation and new advanced technological processes put to work, according to press reports, “The 2008 Highlander is significantly larger, roomier and more powerful than the vehicle it replaces. Yet its fuel efficiency will be virtually unchanged.” It is no secret that this model of the Highlander is amid the company's most commercially viable products.
“Toyota in the World Databook 2008” lists three environmentally friendly SUVs as a reflection of their efforts to reduce their footprint. These newer models have been integrated with the latest technologies in regards to manufacturing processes, emissions and petrol consumption. (Noorbakhsh, S. 2008). The production of new vehicles of this sort can only aid Toyota in maintaining its image as a leader of environmentally friendly products further assisted by their active PR campaigns placing sustainable efforts at the core of their social contribution.
In comparison BP and Toyota Motor Corporation CSR activities have began with single ideas aimed at understanding their core internal systems and processes involving their activities and manufacturing processes and they developed and implemented their own CSR programmes.
Their ultimate objective is to provide practical guidance for stakeholders on how to act as responsible companies.
BP and Toyota are large multinational companies with good structures in place towards CSR activities their CSR strategies are well developed and in the mature stage of their existence and are meant to maximise the potential benefits to all stakeholders. Therefore, these strategies are likely to help prevent operational risks associated with CSR issues.
As large trans-national operating businesses Toyota and BP have both given careful consideration to national cultures where they operate and incorporated that in the development of their respective CSR strategies, these well planned efforts are expected to result in a more effective appraisal of their global operations and identify new CSR issues as well as address them.. It will also improve the ability of the organizations as BP and Toyota to monitor, measure and report on its performance.
Toyota's main business operations represent the majority of its share of greenhouse gas emissions, they do that via their production processes, logistics, facilities maintenance and overall use of energy in their commercial activities. Toyota's management have set firm targets hoping that the company will become emissions free in the very foreseeable future setting its zero emissions target.
They believe that organizational changes and a combining of clear and bold objectives within their organizational culture and identity will help them achieve this task while other companies will consider it impossible within our life times. socially responsible and emission free business. Its management seem to ask and compare themselves questions related to the future of the whole car industry and not only about Toyota as an ongoing concern, they do ask and consult their employees, “Who do we want to be?” and they believe that the answer is linked to firm CSR strategies and operating practices within the business. (Business for Social Responsibility, 2009).
Some of the policies that management have decided on and which have already become practice are:
Increasing the efficiency of current operations
Securing offsets of emissions mainly through carbon trading schemes
Sourcing less carbon-intensive, renewable-based energy
The company's learning oriented culture will be likely to help management address its emissions policy and ultimate goal of becoming a