下面是Fanessay提供的一篇essay范文--About the aesthetics of movies and novels，本篇文章讲述的内容是关于电影和小说的美学方面的，可以供大家了解下。对于影视艺术，从诞生到现在来都是和文学所紧密所相关的，小说和电影有着相似的叙事与抒情所兼备的美学的性质，根据小说改编的影视作品也是很多。在某种的程度上，改编是表示着两种不同的艺术形式间的转换。电影的美学和小说要怎么做到协调一致，这便是改编能否成功的关键点了。
The aesthetic analysis of the film first is to make the film work as an aesthetic object, and more concerned about the complex structure of the film as a whole, a multi-level ideographic generation system with complex structure. Secondly, the film aesthetics should analyze the aesthetic law and the aesthetic principle of the works in all aspects of the film works. As m terry said: "film aesthetics comes down to a form for some content and purpose, the relationship between how and why is superior to another kind of form, in other words, it should be under certain conditions, establish the form as the basis of their psychology."
In aesthetic form, both films and novels are narrative art, and there are obvious compatibility and interoperability between the two forms of art. The main narrative elements of films and novels include three key elements: narrative subject, narrative object and narrative method. Movies and novels with the aid of the perceptual characteristics of narrative fiction or recreating a virtual space is different from the reality of the real world, this space is a kind of aesthetic sense of the real world of return or compensation. Movies and novels by perceptual character, conflict events and vivid story, around the director or writer preset narrative theme thought, most of them are set the readers or the audience's expectation field of vision. And the artistic pursuit of different levels makes the film and the novel have a similar artistic level in the narrative Angle and the pursuit of the target. For example, when people talk about popular novels, it is easy to think of easy and commercial entertainment films. When it comes to classic art films, it also evokes unique memories of timeless literary classics. Therefore, as a film and novel of narrative art, their interdependence is a quite distinct cultural fact.
The narrative art of films and novels is very different: this is mainly reflected in the different media.
The novel USES the language as the narrative medium, and stimulates the corresponding thought image in the memory storage of the readers, which is mainly transmitted in the form of printed matter. As a symbol system composed of signifier and signified, language and writing is an abstract and generalization of the whole thing, which is not directly related to the object of things. Language has a larger scale, pack melt: can use any level of abstraction to portray things individual specific phenomenon and the concept of refinement, but only to stimulate the brain to imagination, association and integration of representation, just feel sense of image language, so it is indirect, fuzzy, not clear, not visible, image language but the brain and the image of the intermediary, do not have physical space, the lack of quality and quantity of concreteness, not specific shows the material properties of things.
Movie narrative medium is a motion picture, made of image symbols, direct image thinking of the audience, mainly in the form of photoelectric media communication: it through camera, to physical reality contained in motion picture film formation complete narrative. The camera is equivalent to the witness and the recorder. Bella, his assertion: "all the style of the film provides a common basis, that is: the movie is a kind of vocal performance, is active, also is a kind of appeared in front of our eyes on the action". The motion picture is a simple representation of material reality, which appeals directly to the audience's vision in a specific and vivid form. It is only to grasp the reality in time and space concrete, the affirmation of a separate face. Therefore, in essence, the film is figurative.
In addition, as a different narrative art, George Bruce east believes that "films and novels are the art of time, but the structure principle of the novel is time, and the structure principle of the film is space. The novel takes the assumed space and forms its narration through the intricate time value; The film takes the assumed time and forms its narrative through the arrangement of space. Both the film and the novel create mental and spatial illusions, but neither destroy time or space. The novel creates the illusion of space by coming in through time; The film creates the illusion of time by coming in through space.
The difference between the medium, the way and the audience determines the different aesthetic qualities of novels and films. The story of the film is directly influenced by the visual sense of the audience, so the story is more life-changing, changing and painting. In particular, the increasingly commercialized films will attract the audience's visual effects first. The story in the novel is more transcendental, defamiliarization, immanent and mysterious. Film director must consider the audience tastes and needs, and the novelist can write for themselves, to a certain extent and character characterizations, more focus on "psychological reality" beyond description and story of life experience, emotional value, the mysteries of the human nature revealed. In this way, even though the novel communicates with the film at the level of story, the difference of its aesthetic value is obvious. Wang anyi, for example, said that the film "only USES the secular aspects of the novel", while the novel shows the "inner world" that embodies the writer's "self".
Aesthetically, the language character of the novel can't compete with the visual image of the movie. The text is well chosen, and a novel can often evoke a lot of imagination, which is more vivid and vivid in imagination than in reality. But even so, movies that appeal directly to the viewer are more easily accepted -- the audience doesn't have to think and imagine to get the meaning and intent of the story. "Today, with a tape recorder, a video recorder, and the Internet, the function of writing and painting a novel is already a serious challenge," he said. Your writing style, however beautiful and accurate, will not be able to write the camera. Only the smell, the camera can't show it." It can be said that it is the existence of different aesthetic characters and aesthetic characteristics that the adaptation of novels and films has a difficult aesthetic transformation task. When the novel and the film are adapted, how to coordinate the two completely different aesthetic characteristics so that both can reach a certain height in their respective aesthetic categories?
The transformation of the two art forms of the novel to the film is like crossing the river, the literature is on this bank, the other side is the film. Once converted, the two forms of art complement each other on both sides of the river. I think the adaptation should be done in the first place, to solve the basic aesthetic problems of two different art styles.
The artistic image of the novel is a kind of psychological reappearance, the blank in the text to leave the reader's experience and imagination to heal. "The content of a person's perception depends not only on the visual elements in the field of vision, but also on individual factors. Their understanding of things reflects the current state of the brain, as well as past experience. When people read novels, naturally aroused the appreciate literature aesthetic psychological effect: with the enthusiasm of imagination and legend of the self, rely on the experience of the aesthetic subject and life experience to understand, rich artistic image. People face the film to provide a relatively stable visual codes; the personal factors of historical experience also interferes with appreciation of and significance, but because of visual art image ambiguity is less, people naturally don't use the anticipation that the novel view and aesthetic psychology to care for the movie. So it will be easy to have a movie, image is too simple or too full and disappoint the recipient of the defect, so the film image must have a distinctive "characteristic" of can let the audience psychological moved or shocking images to impact the appreciation expectation. The so-called "characteristics" are "the individual signs that constitute the essence", "the kind of appropriateness that the individual details of the artistic image display prominently". Like "my grandmother" in "red sorghum" in the middle of broad, up and down small red coat red trousers, the sedan chair, the men are shining the bronze color topless and the recalcible burnished bright head; Solar eclipse when the widespread and thrilling red, sorghum green eyeful back shaking of the earth, the whole scene acted vigorous, broad-minded generous, bright light, perfectly silhouetted against a literariness, mo yan's novel. Therefore, it is an important problem to transform the image from "virtual" to "real" in the novel scene and character image, and the premise of this transformation is the transformation of aesthetic psychology.
The novel is the art of language symbol, the language symbol has the culture and the nationality, has certain reading ability to the reader request. The film is the art of visual image, and the human being has the commonality to obtain the audio-visual information, and the ordinary people can understand it. Therefore, the film should be able to be understood by the audience, and it should be emphasized that the content in the picture should embody the commonality, which should be popularized and simplified in the way of narration, and be deeply rooted in the spiritual connotation. The writers and directors must express their pursuit of art and thought on the basis of "good-looking". As a tool to express the philosophy of thought, the film lacks audience. Many art exploration schools in the history of the world have been once a scene of great beauty, but eventually they fell silent, and the fundamental reason is to ignore the film itself.
As a narrative art, all novels and films are story-telling, but not all novels can be successfully adapted. Although the intensity of the film's performance has been increasing, some of the nature of the film has determined that it cannot be worn freely between the outside world and the characters, as the language symbol does. Language signs can be expressed in detail in psychological activities, subconscious, unconscious mind, touch and feeling, while movies can't do anything about it. The editors need to recognize that there is indeed a novel that is not adapted for the film and that is not suitable for the novel. Hemingway's novel "the old man and the sea" from the old man and the whale's combat such content and the plot, is filled with many rich sense of action scenes, it should be said that the ideal movie theme, but the theme is the author of this novel abstract philosophy, so, even though according to the novel made into a movie with considerable images reappear brilliant fight scene, at the same time as much as possible to the original theme, but ultimately did not show the novel become a mediocre profound connotation of the abstract. Cao yu's "thunderstorm" is an excellent play, but the "curse of the golden flower", which has the basic plot of thunderstorm and works hard, makes people feel very empty. Magnificent movie scenes and strong visual impact can be said to be "the curse of the golden flower" the biggest characteristic and selling point, but these are only highlighted the "curse" empty thought core, makes the film seem is very beautiful, but can't afford to inspire viewers to advocate the beauty and love.
Schiller has reminded people that it is through beauty that people can go to freedom. This question is a question of art direction for modern art aesthetics: should human beings be emancipated, moved to new freedom, or created new cultural norms through aesthetic behaviors? Should art accept the existing norms of consciousness and aesthetic taste, or should it break through norms to achieve freedom? The novel into a movie, the who we really are in accordance with the aesthetic taste of the novel to film faithful to the original novel, or in accordance with the film's aesthetic interest to operate, make the film in line with the consumer's consistent consumer psychology? Further thinking, if we can be more people to consider in the adaptation, rather than art discipline problems, will be based on activity and its significance to rise to respect individuality, freedom, and the height of the cultural development?
From the basic aesthetic point of view, when the director and the writer face the novel, is it the art of adapting the film to the performance or the art of reflection? The modernist genre, like modernist fiction, tends to be expressionistic. The rise of postmodernism brings a new aesthetic direction to films and novels: multiple expression techniques, ambiguous aesthetic connotations and so on. And the rapid development of modern consumer society strongly affect directly to the film as a mass culture consumption: out of economic demand, adaptations tend to give priority to in order to cater to consumer, pay attention to the aesthetic demand of mass temporarily, and non-artistic itself true aesthetic connotation. I believe that no matter how great the original works of art, the adaptation is always based on the aesthetic rules of the changed works of art. The original artwork is the creation of an artist, and the adaptation is the creation of another artist. As a director how to make film art not a mechanical reproduction of literary works is the center of work. In addition, in the Chinese and foreign cultural exchanges between the increasingly frequent today, strong national style and features and important characteristics of movie aesthetics, how to retain their ethnic culture is also in adaptation of directors difficult task. Zhang yimou adapted to mo yan's novel red sorghum, from the artistic forms, MoYanYou belongs to his unique spiritual temperament and narrative, style of zhang yimou, with his own image, but zhang successfully hold the shape of the Chinese nation on the novel of that kind of primitive, wild beauty, this is the national culture and aesthetic sense of success. Hollywood movies because of the "commercial vulgar strategy" to rule the world, we also read from Hollywood commercial type films of American culture and American spirit, therefore, to some extent, the film's artistic and commercial is not contradictory, and in the commercial production system and art. From a certain perspective, our enjoyment of the movie today, more than from the perspective of literature and film criticism is always consciously or unconsciously put film in the process of criticism literature, traditional literary theory can work here or a doubtful question. Therefore, the adaptation should not be influenced by these immature criticism, and should adhere to the appropriate aesthetic transformation path.