下面是Fanessay整理的一篇essay范文-- Western human capital theory，为了解决新出现的经济问题，西方学者开始挖掘和发展前人在人力资本领域的思想，并开始对现代人力资本理论的研究，形成了西方独特的人力资本理论。西方人力资本理论之所以能在世界范围内产生影响并享有很高的学术声望，不仅是因为它充满了对传统理论的大胆质疑和对生活世界的深刻见解，而且因为它给我们带来了许多富有挑战性的启示。
Schultz found in his long-term research on the agricultural economy that the income of workers is closely related to their intelligence and skills. The theory of human capital established by him is famous in the academic circle for its distinct proposition and incisive argumentation. In particular, a series of views in this theory are corroborated by the booming "knowledge economy" in the world, thus showing the academic foresight and guiding significance of this theory in practice.
Emphasizing the role of human beings in the economy, helping the court to determine compensation for personal injury and death, proving a nation's ability, evaluating the cost of all wars, etc., is the first to understand the economic value of human beings from the perspective of economics, and to evaluate the monetary value of human beings from the perspective of macro and micro, which is the seed of human capital theory.
Adam Smith in his 1776 published "the wealth of nations" in preliminary put forward the thought of human capital. He thinks: fixed capital includes all resident or the useful ability that social member obtains. This talent is acquired through a process that includes education, schools and apprenticeships, generally at a realistic cost, so it can be seen as capital that is fixed on the individual and has been realized. Economists of this period believed that people and their abilities and acquired skills should be included in the scope of capital.
After entering the 20th century, the western economists have made new progress in the study of human capital. Published in the American economist Michael Owen ? fisher's book "the nature of capital and income", for the first time put forward the concept of human capital, and be included in the theoretical framework of economic analysis. In 1924, the former Soviet union, an economist at stroop millin published in the "the economic significance of the national education" the article first puts forward the calculation formula of education investment yield, he USES a simplified calculation method to calculate the labor, elementary education for workers a year than the same time working in the factory to improve the labor productivity of 1.6 times, he is also the earliest illustrated with quantity calculation formula of education economists make economic sense.
After World War II, the world economy recovered rapidly, science and technology developed rapidly, and neoclassical economics, which was in the mainstream school, was frequently challenged by new economic problems. Some scholars are keenly aware of this change. In order to solve these economic mysteries, they began to explore and develop the previous ideas in the field of human capital, initiated the research of modern human capital theory, and formed the human capital theory.
In 1956, solow published a paper entitled "contribution to the theory of economic growth". Since then, a large number of economists have been involved in the study of the theory of growth. By combining human capital factors and putting forward a rigorous economic mathematical model, they can analyze human capital in the same way as the production function method to analyze the contribution of the amount of capital and input of labor factors to economic growth, thus putting forward some economic growth models with human capital as the core. In romer and Lucas' model, human capital is not only incorporated into and endogenous, but also overcomes the drawback that economic equilibrium growth depends on the growth rate of labor force.
Although as early as 200 years ago, the main representative classical economics ? Adam Smith has made people acquired skills as part of the capital, but for a variety of concerns, people routinely capital is limited to the physical form, even as one of production factors of the labor force as "capital of the free". This insularity, with its own ideas, leads to a dead-end explanation of the drivers of economic growth.
Schulz's "human capital investment" expounds many economic growth problems that cannot be explained by traditional economic theories, and clearly proposes that human capital is the main reason for promoting national economic growth in modern times. Schultz discovered and founded the theory of human capital from the traditional theory that could not explain the gap between the growth of national income and the growth of national resources. "The increase in national output, which has been widely observed, has been greater than the increase in land and labor per person and in the amount of material capital that can be reproduced," he said. The investment in human capital is probably the main indication of this shortfall. In this way, human capital was put forward as the core concept of schulz's theory.
According to schulz, the so-called human capital is a kind of capital form existing relative to physical capital, which represents the knowledge, skills, experience and health of human beings. The remarkable sign of human capital is that it belongs to the human part. It's human because it's human. It is capital because it is the source of future satisfaction or future income. This expression expresses the basic attribute of human capital.
Schultz on human capital theory system is discussed mainly reflected in his 1971 book "the role of human capital investment, education and research" and published in 1981, the human capital investment: the economics of population quality in the two books, daring to question the traditional knowledge and scientific falsified is proposed on the basis of their own unique insights.
Schulz rejected the idea that labor is homogeneous in classical economics, believing that labor and human capital are heterogeneous. "The productive capacity of the worker is also seen as roughly equal," schulz said. This concept of labor was not correct in classical economics, and now the error is even more obvious.
According to schulz, human capital includes both quantity and quality. The quantity aspect refers to the number and percentage of people engaged in useful work in a society and the working time, which to some extent represents the amount of human capital in that society. Qualitative aspects refer to skills, knowledge and proficiency of people and other similar things that can affect people's ability to engage in productive work.
Schultz sees the accumulation of human capital as a source of socio-economic growth. Schulz believes that the return rate of human capital and physical capital investment is related to each other, and believes that the relative investment amount of human capital and physical capital is mainly determined by the return rate.
Shultz argues that education is also a factor that equalizes the social distribution of individual income. Human capital can make economic growth, increase individual income, make the inequality of individual income social distribution tends to reduce.
Schultz's theory of human capital can impact in countries around the world, enjoys a very high academic reputation, not only because of the traditional theory of this theory is full of bold question, also not because the theory shows profound insight to the living world, and also because this theory brings us a lot of enlightenment, which is more challenging to our enlightenment is:
Increase investment and optimize the structure to promote the rapid growth of human capital. Domestic and foreign experience shows that the government should become the primary investor of human capital. The government's investment in human capital has multiple functions, which can not only directly form human capital, but also drive private investment, adjust private investment direction and optimize investment structure.
Intellectual capital is the core of human capital, and education is the main force producing intellectual capital. In the past, people ignored education mainly because of theoretical misunderstandings. Education has long been regarded as the consumption level, which is the main factor influencing the increase of education investment.
Establishing a unified multi-level human capital market. The first step is to establish a special human capital market and separate it from the labor market. Second, we should strengthen the unity of the human capital market and expand the market scale. Finally, we should actively explore various forms of human capital market, constantly innovate and enrich the connotation of human capital market allocation.