今天美国论文代写机构Fanessay分享一篇Essay代写范文--About Education management，本篇文章讨论的内容是关于教育管理体制反面的，可以供同学们了解下。对于教育管理，是一个独立的学术研究领域，是起源于二战在美国兴起的教育管理理论运动，而其他国家也在美国教育管理理论运动的影响下开始发展起来。在美国教育管理这块学术领域中，是出于全球领先地位的，教育管理体制改革在全球范围中也产生了很大的影响。美国的教育管理体制改革是在教育改革的必要性后推动起来的。
As an independent academic research field, education management originated from education management theory movement in the United States after world war ii. Education management theory in other countries was developed under the direct or indirect influence of education management theory movement in the United States. The United States is a world leader in the academic field of education management, and its reform of education management system has exerted profound influence on the whole world.
Education management system reform in the United States was promoted after education management system reform was found to be necessary for education reform in education reform.
In the early 1980s, the United States experienced the first wave of education reform. It was believed that the reason for the low learning achievements of students was the low quality of teachers, and the problem was teachers themselves. The government sets various standards and regulations for teachers from the top down to improve the requirements for teachers. However, the response of school districts, schools, and teachers to the mechanical passivity of the regulations did not yield significant results. In the second wave of reform, states, school districts and schools struck a "deal": the state relinquished certain education powers in return for teachers, school leaders, schools and school districts taking more responsibility for education's success or failure. This means that teachers are no longer seen as "problems", but as solutions. The government is aware of the important position of education management system reform in education reform. "decentralization and accountability" has become the basic idea of the reform, and "school choice" has become an important means for the government to ensure the quality of education. In the third wave of reform in the 1990s, the idea of "decentralization and accountability" was further developed, in the form of "de-regulation": schools can be improved only when the power reaches the proper level. The third wave of reform examined school effectiveness and improvement through the high stakes examination, and linked it with the reward and punishment system; the high stakes examination is the evaluation of going to the regulation.
To sum up, the reform of education management system in the United States focuses on the following three aspects: education decentralization, school-based management and school selection.
Education decentralization is the foundation of the latter two, the education fiscal responsibility transferred to local government, community, or the parents, improve the efficiency of education management and resource use efficiency, to promote public recognition of education and accept and win more support for the central government, giving teachers and principals about the power to inspire them to improve the education quality, enhance competitive schools around to increase the power of education innovation. In the reform of education management system in the United States, the management power of education in the state gradually moves down to the local school district, and part of the management power of education in the school district gradually moves down to the primary school.
School-based management is a form of decentralization of education, which regards schools as the primary unit of education improvement and reconfigures decision-making power to promote and maintain improvement. The idea of school-based management came into being in the 1970s. In 1986, the national governors association of America promised that the state government would give up a lot of conventional education control power. School-based management practice really began. There are three representative modes in the initial practice of school-based management in the United States: administrative control mode, professional control mode and community control mode. Practice has made the education circle realize that school-based management contains three aspects as follows: school has changed from external control to democratic self-management; Schools are given autonomy while also assuming reciprocal responsibilities and increasing accountability; The success of school-based management is reflected by the improvement of students' learning results. This prompted a new model of school-based management, charter schools. The failure rate of charter schools, restricted by performance contracts and assessed by parents' votes, is very low. The charter school district has fundamentally shaken the traditional education management system pattern in the United States and marked a new milestone of school-based management in the United States. The school district center of the charter school district is the doorkeeper, responsible for the review of charter school opening; Is the intermediary for the school to provide various service providers; Is the provider of paid services to the school; Is a half of the evaluation, on behalf of the school district to make a periodic evaluation of school conditions. The charter schools under the charter school district have greater autonomy, more marketization characteristics, more focus on the improvement of students' learning achievements and more partnership between the school district and the school district.
School choice is an important means for the government to guarantee the quality of education under the decentralization of education. According to Dan goldhaber and Eric eide, school choice generally refers to any policy measure aimed at reducing the geographical limitations of traditional public schools by breaking the link between where students live and where they attend school. School choice is a market-based education reform. Friedman extended his view of the possibility of market economy to education, laid a theoretical foundation for school choice, and proposed the idea of education coupon. The choice between parents and students is the core and basis of education vouchers. It refers to that after the government reduces the education funds invested directly into public schools by the unit cost of the students, it will be issued to families or students in the form of education vouchers. Students can choose government-recognized schools with education vouchers to study, without being restricted by the school district. Education vouchers offset all or part of the tuition, the school by voucher to the government to exchange education funds. The government introduced the education voucher program in the 1980s, and the school choice movement was widely supported and formed in the late 1980s. Market-based school choice means part of public education funding goes to private schools, which is a big breakthrough in the funding system of education in the United States, and promotes the improvement of school leaders' behavior.