今天Fanessay小编整理了一篇Assignment代写范文--Social assistance system，本篇文章阐述的内容关于社会救助制度。社会救济的制定与行为已经存在，但作为现代社会保障制度中一项重要而规范的制度，它在16、17世纪逐渐在英格兰形成。近年来，我国在保障流动人口和农民工权益、解决失地农民问题、建立社会救助制度等方面也取得了不小的成绩，强制收容遣返屡见不鲜。当然完善的社会保障制度，还有很长的路要走，还有很多问题需要解决。因此，通过研究包括英国在内的世界各国建立移民问题和社会救济制度的进程，我们可以而且应该得到一些有益的启示。同时，要清醒认识和反思，避免“羊肉相食”或类似悲剧在新时期重演。
The formulation and behavior of social relief have already existed, but as an important and regular system in modern social security system, it was gradually formed in England in the 16th and 17th centuries. The main reasons are as follows.
With the new air route opened up, the European economic and trade of the most prosperous region shifting from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coast, the use of its advantageous geographical environment gradually, it ended early divided the medieval feudal system, the formation of a unified national country and centralized monarchy, which objectively have created favorable conditions for the development of modern economy and trade. The rapid development of commerce and trade, especially the high profits of the wool textile industry, prompted the new bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy to launch a huge and far-reaching enclosure campaign to drive farmers off the land and use it to raise sheep. At that time, the textile industry and other industries which were developed due to the enclosure were not able to absorb so much labor force, so a large number of refugees were inevitably produced. In addition to the main reason for the enclosure movement, the price revolution has also contributed to the impoverishment of employed laborers, the expansion of population, the dissolution of monasteries, the abolition of feudal ministers and the repatriation of demobilized soldiers.
A large number of refugees have greatly increased the factors of social instability and need to be resolved. The British government's treatment of the refugees has undergone a long process of change. In the early stage, the punishment was mainly punishment, supplemented by relief, and the punishment was extremely harsh. The vagrants were often executed, and 72,000 people were hanged on the order of Henry viii alone. Later, simple and harsh laws not only failed to reduce the scale of the homeless, but also led to more and more resistance and even insurrection. At the same time, people of insight gradually realized that poverty and vagrancy could not only be attributed to the laziness of the parties, but also to their inability to control the socio-economic environment. Therefore, the relief to the poor and the poor is increasing, and the degree of institutionalization is also increasing. On the basis of decades of discussion and several laws and regulations concerning the poor, the poor law was adopted in 1601 and has been continuously revised and improved.
Britain's economic strength and level of economic development have provided the foundation and premise for the establishment of social assistance system. The rapid development of Britain's economy in the 16th and 17th centuries, both in terms of economic development level and economic strength, is in the forefront of the world and soon becomes a leader. This has laid the material foundation for the generation of social assistance system.
As a result of the development of capitalist economy, the power of the emerging bourgeoisie grew rapidly, and more political power was required, which was in conflict with the then absolute monarchy. With the development of the contradiction, the rulers have to pay attention to the problem of poverty in order to maintain their own rule. On the one hand, alleviating the problem of refugees helps to stabilize their ruling order. On the other hand, the refugees are mostly produced by the new bourgeoisie and the new bourgeoisie who pursue economic interests by hook or by hook. The establishment of the poor system can appease and win over the lower class and use them to compete with the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy. In addition, the poor system itself helps to limit the power of the bourgeoisie to a certain extent and curb the rise of the bourgeoisie.
Tudor dynasty and stuarts execute the absolute monarchy and centralization, which for formulating and implementing system provides a strong guarantee, because of the unity of universality and the laws and regulations must be depend on the formulation and implementation of state power, the collection and payment, the workhouse of large-scale construction of poor tax if left a strong unified state power, is also unable to imagine.
By the end of the middle ages, various kinds of social aid organizations had already become quite large in Britain, and social assistance was widespread. With the development of the enclosure movement, they have gained considerable development and improvement, which naturally provides an important foundation for the establishment of the social relief system.
At the same time, European countries did not have the same conditions as Britain: Germany was in a state of fragmentation, economically backward, politically unstable; Although France has established a centralized monarchy, the small-scale peasant economy dominates, and the vast majority of peasants are still firmly tied to the land. The situation in other countries need not be told. Therefore, the social assistance system can only and certainly be established in Britain first.
At present, China's industrialization and urbanization are proceeding rapidly. In this process, a large number of land-lost farmers and floating population are generated, including a huge group of migrant workers who emerge due to the special urban-rural dual system. They have not been included into the formal social security system for a long time, and have been slow to enjoy due social security benefits. Even their basic personal rights have been violated from time to time. Although these phenomena are fundamentally different in nature from the migrant problem in Britain during the primitive accumulation period of capitalism, they are quite similar in some aspects objectively. Especially when they occur in the 21st century under the background of building a harmonious society socialist China, it is particularly shocking.
Current our country social security system existence of insurance, relief, this is not conducive to the development and perfection of social security system, also do not accord with our country economy development level is still low, lack of traditional insurance, the characteristics of the system construction is not perfect, does not conform to the floating population in our country at present, more realistic national conditions of vulnerable groups.
In recent years, our country in the security of the floating population and peasant workers' rights and interests, solving the problem of land-lost farmers, and to build on the question of social assistance system has also made no small achievements, compulsory for internment and repatriation repealed, love the the establishment of the management system, social relief method into the legislative agenda, the release of a new labor contract law, etc., can illustrate this point. At the time of writing this article, from the ongoing session of the 11th National People's Congress, came the good news that China's urban and rural social assistance system was basically established. But at the same time we should also see, at present our country's situation whether compared with the developed countries, or with us compared to the requirements of building a harmonious socialist society, the social security system is still a considerable gap and quite a lot of problems, and establish a perfect social security system, we still have a long way to go, there are still many problems to solve. Therefore, we can and should gain some useful inspirations by studying the process of establishing migrant problems and social relief systems in countries around the world, including the UK. Meanwhile, we should keep a clear understanding and reflection on it, so as to avoid the recurrence of "sheep cannibalism" or similar tragedies in the new era.