今天Fanessay整理了一篇essay范文--The vague language，本篇文章讨论你的内容是关于模糊语言方面的，可以供大家了解下。模糊语言在我们日常的交流中是不可避免的。伯特兰·罗素在他的《模糊性》中认为所有的语言多多少少是模糊的。美国的语言学家伊斯雷尔·舍弗勒在著名著作里的《超越文字：语言的模糊性、模糊性和隐喻的哲学探究》里指出：模糊是描述词语的特征。就想Joanna Channell指出，普通语言给人们留下了模糊的空间，也是避免精确性和与之相关的承诺。
Fuzzy language is a kind of expression with rich connotation and clear denotation, and it lacks clear referential boundary. This article is divided into two parts to make a simple explanation of fuzzy language in British and American literature. The first step focuses on the origin of fuzzy language and its special charm in literary works. Secondly, it makes a detailed appreciation and evaluation of some famous British and American literary works and shares them with you.
Scholars have different views on language, which can be divided into two schools. One school believes that good language should be clear and accurate, and that ambiguity, ambiguity, imprecision and universal unhappiness can be avoided. On the contrary, the other school thinks that fuzzy language shows better artistic effect in some aspects.
Vague language is inevitable in our communication. In his essay fuzziness, Bertrand Russell argued that all languages are more or less fuzzy. American linguist Israel schaeffler pointed out in his famous book beyond words: a philosophical inquiry into the fuzziness, fuzziness and metaphor of language that vagueness is a universal feature of descriptive words. As Joanna Channell points out, common languages leave room for ambiguity in order to avoid precision and the promise associated with it. In China, more than 2,000 years ago, laozi gave us an objective understanding of the phenomenon or ambiguity in his masterpiece daode jing: "dao ke dao, very dao, Ming can Ming, very Ming", but at that time he did not put forward the scientific term "fuzziness". In fact, the scientific study of fuzzy language originated from a paper on "fuzzy sets". The paper refers to the theory of vagueness. Since then, vagueness has been a scientific term. Today, its influence is increasingly widespread, with a series of fuzzy branches of related frontiers emerging. With the penetration and inspiration of this theory, fuzzy linguistics is established. It is generally believed that the research on fuzzy language in China began with the paper "preliminary research on fuzzy language" published by Mr. Wu tieping in 1979, which marked the beginning of the research on fuzzy language system in China.
The phenomenon of fuzzy language usually occurs on the boundary of time or space and sometimes on the periphery of concept. However, the central area of the object is clear. The origin of fuzziness determines that this linguistic phenomenon can be divided into ontological fuzziness and epistemological fuzziness. Ontological fuzziness objectively refers to the fuzzy phenomenon existing in the world itself. Natural language is full of such words and expressions, which cannot be avoided. For example, it's hard to tell when a mountain gets big enough to be called a mountain; Winter ends on that day, spring begins on that day; And the line between red and orange. In fact, these concepts are only part of a continuum in the objective world, and there are no strict boundaries between them. The fuzziness of epistemology stems from the limitation of people's ability to know the world. In fact, many abstract words or expressions, as well as adjectives and various forms of rhetoric, are considered vague because of their inscrutability and are difficult to give widely accepted explanations. However, in many cases, the fuzziness of the two types appears in combination. In other words, these two categories may lead to the fuzziness of a discourse at the same time. Take "gao" for example. The word is considered vague because it is difficult to draw a clear line between "not very high" and "very high". In this sense, ontological factors lead to the ambiguity of the word.
A review of the study of fuzzy language in China should start with wu tieping, a professor at Beijing normal university. His research on fuzzy linguistics is regarded as a landmark paper in the field of fuzzy language research in China. In the next 20 years, wu tieping published more than 36 research papers on fuzzy linguistics. With abundant data and data, wu tieping made a deep and rigorous exploration, analysis and discussion of fuzzy language. This paper discusses the essence of fuzzy meaning, distinguishes the fuzziness and generality of semantic meaning, and puts forward the concept and measurement method of "fuzziness degree". Qiao zhang completed his doctoral dissertation "semantics of fuzzy quantifiers" in Edinburgh, UK. In this work, she discusses the fuzziness of language from a fairly large semantic range. In recent years, these great works have brought China's research into a stage of vigorous development.
To sum up, scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of work on the study of fuzzy language, and have achieved fruitful results. As for the translation of fuzzy language, the existing researches mainly focus on the skills or strategies of fuzzy language translation and the relationship between fuzzy language and translation. Statistics show that Chinese literature, especially classical literature, is the main source of reference. Although there are many studies on the translation of fuzzy language in literary works, there are relatively few studies on the translation of fuzzy language in British and American literary works.
In general, words, sentences, paragraphs and rhetoric, the basic elements of literature, can be presented in the form of vague language. For example, the word "about", which is commonly used by everyone, has gone beyond the meaning of the word itself to transform an absolute thing into a relative concept. Maugham by the moon and sixpence, have so a words: I don 't have many dates, I gladly accepted. Translation: "my appointment is not much, I gladly accepted the invitation". Here, "not much" is just a vague word, which is good because it doesn't explain how many dates the protagonist has had, deftly solving the problem of duplicity. In the communication not only to avoid the two sides of the conversation embarrassment, and let the language become implicit euphemism, do not lose etiquette.
It is inevitable that when reading English and American literary works, they are often hampered by language and may misunderstand the author's real intention of expression. Apart from British and American literature, even in Chinese literary works, if not truly devoted to the emotional reading, can not fully understand the author's true state of mind. A literary work is something that expresses a writer's state of mind, not just a pile of words. Therefore, in the translation of British and American literary works, it is not only necessary to devote enough enthusiasm, but also more importantly to integrate into the writer's writing thinking, so as to deeply explore the inner meaning of literary works.
As the study of fuzzy language provides a new perspective for translation studies, this paper mainly studies the translation of fuzzy language in literary works. This paper attempts to illustrate the application of fuzzy language in British and American literature from the perspective of words and phrases. As far as this paper is concerned, one of the main research focuses that may be innovative is the study of the translation of fuzzy language in English classic novels. Through reading and thinking at different levels, the author's thoughts can be deeply interpreted. For example, in the novel the moon and sixpence, maugham cleverly USES vague words to express the intensity of his inner changes when he describes what he feels when he sees them. Thus, readers are inspired to experience the unique art together with the protagonist. This is the specific description in the work: "To tell you the truth, I looked at it in the same way that I looked at the Sistine chapel in Rome. There I also felt that the painter who made on the between the was very great and admired and awed. It 's really a genius Painting. It 's so powerful, It top service people dizzy. In front of to great murals, I felt very small and insignificant. "only three words, not a little waste, image showed the hero of the painting appreciation strickland, also from the side foil a painting artist when discovering the new continent. A few simple words "dizzy", "small and insignificant", express, literally see is the hero of great works praise and admiration. In fact, when we go into the heart of the protagonist, it is not difficult to find that when the protagonist is faced with an extraordinary work of art, he first shows great appreciation, and then shows a deep sense of internal imbalance. "But I really had never seen a painting that left such a deep impression on me." Fuzzy language is also widely used in the characterization of characters in American and British works. Maybe that's why beliefs are so different that a thousand readers can own a thousand villages. Special attention will be paid to the creation of characters in Yang bi's translation of vanity fair. William makepeace thackeray's great novel vanity fair is rooted in social and historical reality and reveals the weakness of human nature and society in 19th century England. The novel is known for its satirical character and tone. In the Chinese translation of vanity fair, Yang bi successfully grasped the theme of the novel and faithfully and vividly presented to readers the upper-class society in Britain in the 19th century, including the landed aristocracy, urban merchants, social climbers and so on. Yang bi's translation of vanity fair is the first full version of vanity fair in China, and her translation is very successful. William makepeace thackeray created many characters in his most famous work vanity fair, the most wonderful of which was Rebecca sharp or becky. In fact, as thackeray admits, becky is more attractive to most readers than any other character in the novel. Becky was born into a poor family. In a society that values rank and wealth, she gradually advanced to the highest level of learning, intelligence, diligence and talent through her own resources and wisdom. She is resourceful and can recover from every setback. She manipulates people, she lies, she cheats, she steals, she betrays amelia. With the development of the novel. Some readers felt she had become more dangerous and evil. In order to portray such a key character in the novel, thackeray does not spend much time describing her appearance. Instead, he attached great importance to the characterization of becky. Even if becky doesn't write too much, readers can still create a vivid image in their minds. As for the characters in the novel, fuzziness is one of the most essential characteristics of the characters, and people's emotions and thoughts are the most vague, because they are the most uncertain and intangible. The most striking feature of egden heath's image is the use of personification. Personification is a form of fuzzy language because it blurs the line between humans and animation. The description of scenery in this chapter gives full play to the power of vague language and makes it possible for readers to give full play to their imagination. As a result, readers can recreate the landscape of egerton moor in their minds. As in any novel, the first chapter begins with the setting of the story, the time and place. The difference, however, is that time and place are given life and consciousness and action. "A Saturday aftemoon in November was approaching the time of twilight, and the vast tract of unenclosed wild known as Egdon Heath embrowned itself moment by moment." in this sentence, It is the words "approach" and "embrown" that activate the lifeless time and place. The time could be close to the "twilight hour," and the place could brown itself "all the time." In that sense, they have human abilities. . It could in the like manner retard the dawn, sadden noon, anticipate the frowning of storms scarcely generated, and intensify the opacity of a moonless midnight to a cause of shaking and dread. Without a doubt, the sentences above using the anthropomorphism technique can be thought of as vague sentences. It is used in the service of describing egden heath's appealing image to the reader, and gives the reader a vivid picture in his mind of the "vastness of the wilderness" as terrifying and brutal.
In addition, landscape description is ubiquitous in literature, and fiction is no exception. This assignment will take Thomas hardy's the return of the hometown as an example to explore the translation of vague language in scene description in literary works. The return of the native is one of Thomas hardy's representative works. The return of the native is a synthesis of the works of Thomas hardy. His wonderful description of the English countryside, as well as a story of doomed love, passion and melancholy, deeply moved all readers. The whole story is dominated by egden heath's melancholy presence, and hardy's extraordinary sense of landscape may not have been so perfectly integrated with his grim, Stoic vision of human destiny in any other book.